Islam of Mecca vs Medina!
In my last blog post, I explained the Islam of Mohammad in Mecca, where in a twelve-year period Mohammad received and proclaimed a non-warfare message. Mohammad’s audience was basically his own tribe, Quraysh, which was an idol worshipping tribe. But his message was not received, at all, by Quraysh!
The life in Mecca became very difficult for Mohammad and his gang of 300 converts. The opposition from Quraysh was too severe for this newfound religion to survive! So in 615 (AD), after five years of preaching in Mecca, Mohammad asked some of his companions (85 in total) to flee to the kingdom of Aksum in Abyssinia (present day Ethiopia & Eritrea). This is known as the first Hijrah (migration) in Islam1. It is ironic that King Negus who welcomed the Muslim migrates was actually a Christian king.
During this time Umar ibn al-Khattab, Islam’s second Caliph, became a Muslim.
Quraysh continued its insult against Mohammad and those who remained behind in Mecca. And Mohammad’s response was verses of condemnation from Allah, such as Sura 104.
“Woe to every scorner and mocker. Who collects wealth and [continuously] counts it. He thinks that his wealth will make him immortal. No! He will surely be thrown into the Crusher. And what can make you know what is the Crusher? It is the fire of Allah, [eternally] fueled, which mounts directed at the hearts. Indeed, Hellfire will be closed down upon them, in extended columns.” Sura 104:1-9
Many suras given to Mohammad in Mecca were mainly aimed at confronting and condemning the polytheists Quraysh – proving that there was only one god, called Allah! These suras (chapters) are rhetorical, condemning, angry, and also short in length.
The Quran is not written in chronological order like the Bible. The Meccan suras are short and placed at the end of the Quran, although they were given to Mohammad first. The Medina suras are the longest and placed in the beginning of the Quran, although they were given to Mohammad at the end of his life!
The Quran is a reactionary book. It revolves around Mohammad. The verses of the Quran were revealed to Mohammad as he faced various conditions during his 22-year reign as a prophet of Islam! It is unlike any portion of the Scripture both in the Old and the New Testament!
There is a huge confusion in the orders of these suras in the Quran. For example: Sura 7 (al-A’raf – elevated places) is a Meccan Sura, except verses 163-170 which belong to Medina Sura. The next Sura, chapter 8 (al-Anfal – spoils of war) is a Medina Sura, but verses 30-36 are from Mecca! The chaos in the placement of these suras in the Quran is self-evident that the Quran is not a divinely inspired book!
To a Muslim, the Quran is Allah’s own word to man. It is the most holy book, revered and highly respected, even for those who do not understand or who have never read it. This, however, does not change the fact that the Quran, as a piece of literature and as a book, is nothing but pure confusion and massive repetitions of the same idea.
Many scholars have made comments on the Quran, which are very offensive to Muslims. The Scottish scholar Thomas Carlyle once said:
It is as toilsome reading as I ever undertook, a wearisome, confused jumble, crude, incondite. Nothing but a sense of duty could carry any European through the Koran.
(Robert Morey, The Islamic Invasion (1992), p.108)
As I have already pointed out, the chronological order of the events mentioned in the Quran is very scrambled and historically inaccurate.
It is a grave mistake for one to believe that the God of the Quran is the same God of the Bible.
Many Muslim scholars have attempted to assign a chronological order to the events mentioned in the Quran. According to the Muslim scholar Ibn-Ishaq, the chronological order for the events mentioned in the Quran is as follows:
Creation; Adam and Eve; Noah and his issue; Hud; Salih; Abraham; Lot; Job; Shu‘ayb; Joseph; Moses; Ezekiel; Elijah; Elisha; Samuel; David; Solomon; Sheba; Isaiah; al-Khidr; Daniel; Hananiah; Azariah; Mishael and Ezra; Alexander; Zecharia and John; the family of Imran and Jesus, son of Mary; the Companion of the Cave; Jonah; the Three Mess-engers; Samson; George.
Christians would note that many of the so-called prophets in the above list from the Quran are mentioned neither in the Old Testament nor the New Testament. Who are Hud, Salih, Sheba, Shu‘ayb, al-Khidr, Alexander, George and the Companion of the Cave? Other than Alexander, the existence of these persons does not even seem to be supported by historical record.
Also, this historical order of the prophets is in pure error. Jonah and Samson are placed after Christ. Ezekiel is placed in the time of the Judges shortly after Joshua. Mary, the mother of Jesus, is confused with Miriam, the sister of Moses and Aaron. Mary is addressed as the sister of Aaron and the daughter of Amram (Sura 3:31-37 and 19:28).
A careful comparison of the Quran with the Bible reveals the many errors recorded in the Quran. The vast differences between the Bible and the Quran, and between the God of the Bible and Allah of the Quran, are undeniable.